Medical References

1. Tulloch WS. Consideration of sterility factors in the light of subsequent pregnancies. Subfertility in male. Edinburgh Med J 1952; 59:29.

2. Walsh P,White R. Balloon Occclusion of the Internal Spermatic Vein for the Treatment of Varicoceles. JAMA 1981;246:1701-1702.

3. Halden W, White R. Outpatient Embolotherapy of Varicocele. Urol Cl N Am 1987;14:137-144.

4. Smith S, Sewall L. Treating varicoceles with embolization. Endovascular Today. 2009; April:57-60.

5. Schlessinger MH, Wilets IF, Nagler HM. Treatment outcome after varicocelectomy. Urol Clin North Am 1994; 21:517-529.

6. Report on varicocele and infertility by the Practice committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Fertil Steril 2008;90:S247-9

7. Agarwal, A, Sharma R, Desai N, et al. Role of Oxidative Stress in Pathogenesis of Varicocele and Infertility Urol 2009; 73:461-469.

8. Kim H, Goldstein M. Adult Varicocele. Curr Opin Urol 2008; 18:608-612.

9. French D, Desai N, Agarwal A. Varicocele repair: does it still have a role in infertility treatment? Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2008; 20:269-274.

10. Benhoff S, Millan C, Hurley I, et al. Bilateral increased apoptosis and bilateral accumulation of cadmium in infertile men with left varicocele. Hum Reprod 2004;19(3):616-627.

11. Zorgniotti AW, Sealfon AI: Studies in temperature, human semen quality and varicocele. J. Reprod Steril 1988; 82:563.

12. Lerchl A, Keck C, Spiteri-Grech S. Nieschlag E: Diurnal variations in scrotal temperatures of normal men and patients with varicocele before and after treatment. Int J Androl 1993;16:195.

13. Reyes BL, Trerotola SO, Venbrux AC, et al. Percutaneous embolotherapy of adolescent varicocele: Results and long-term follow-up. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1994;5:131.

14. Kass EJ, The Adolescent Varicocele: Treatment and Outcomes Curr Urol Rep 2002;3:100-106.

15. Guarino N, Tadini B, Bianchi M. The Adolescent Varicocele: the crucial role of Hormonal tests in Selecting patients with Testicular Dysfunction. J Pediatr Surg 2003;38: 120-123.

16. Diamond D, Zurakowski D, Baur S, et al. Relationship of Varicocele Grade and Testicular Hypotrophy to Semen Parameters in Adolescents. J Urol 2007;178:1584-1588.

17. Salzhauer E, Sokol A, Glassberg K. Paternity after Adolescent Varicocele Repair. Pediatrics 2004;114:1631-1633.

18. Kubal A, Nagler H, Zahalsky M et al. The adolescent Varicocele: Diagnosis and Treatment Patterns of Pediatricians. A Public Health Concern? J Urol 2004;171:411-413.

19. Reiner E, Pollak J, Henderson K, et al. Initial experience with 3% Sodium Tetradecyl Sulfate Foam and Fibered Coils for Management of Adolescent Varicocele. J Vasc Interv Radiol 2008; 19:207-210.

20. Alqatani A, Yazbeck S, Dubois J et al. Percutaneous Embolization of Varicoceles in Children: A Canadian Experience J Ped Surg. 2002;37:783-5

21. LaNasa JA Jr, Lewis RW. Varicocele and its surgical management. Urol Clin North Am 1987;14:127-135.

22. Behre HM, Nashan D, Nieschlag E. International Journal of Andrology 1989;12:395-403.

23. McClure RD, Khoo, D, Jarvi K, Hricak H. Subclinical varicocele: The effectiveness of varicocelectomy. Journal of Urology 1991;145:789-791.

24. Gonda RL Jr, Karo JJ, Forte RA, O’Donnell KT. Diagnosis of subclinical varicocele in infertility. AJR 1987;148:71-75.

25. Petros JA, Andriole GL, Middleton WD, Picus DA. Correlation of testicular color doppler ultrasonography, physical examination and venography in the detection of left varicoceles in men with infertility. Journal of Urology 1991;145:785-788.

26. Marsman JWP. Clinical versus subclinical varicocele: venographic findings and improvement of fertility after embolization. Radiology 1985;155:635-638.

27. Marsman JWP, Schats R. The subclinical varicocele debate. Human Reproduction 1994;9:1-8.

28. Marmar J, Kim Y. Subinguinal Microsurgical Varicocelectomy: a Technical Critique and Statistical analysis of Semen and Pregnancy data. J Urol 1994;152:1127.

29. Szabo R, Kessler R. Hydrocele following Internal Spermatic Vein Ligation: a Retrospective Study and review of the Literature. J Urol 1984;132:924.

30. Zuckerman AM, Mitchell SE, Venbrux AC, et al: Percutaneous varicocele occlusion: Long-term follow-up. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1994;5:315.

31. Nabi G, Asterlings, Greene DR, et al. Percutaneous embolization of varicoceles: outcomes and correlation of semen improvement with pregnancy. Urology. 2004;63:359–363.

32. Gandini R, Konda D, Reale CA, et al. Male varicocele: transcatheter foam sclerotherapy with sodium tetradecyl sulfate-outcome in 244 patients. Radiology. 2008;246:612–618.

33. Gazzera C, Rampado O, Savio L, Et Al. Radiological Treatment of Male Varicocele; Technical, Clinical, Seminal, and Dosimetric Aspects. La Radiologica Medica, 2006; 111: 449-458.

34. Richter EJ,, Zietler E, Seyfarth W. Phlebography and sclerotherapy of the spermatic veins. Semin Interv Radiol 1984;1:175.

35. Kumpman W. Riedl P, Bliem J, et al. Cyanoacrylate in spermatic vein embolization. Semin Interv Radiol 1984;1:170.

36. Sigmund G, Bahren W, Gall H, et al. Idiopathic varicoceles: Feasibility of percutaneous sclerotherapy. Radiology 1987;164:161.

37. Thon WF, Gall H, Danz B, et al. Percutaneous sclerotherapy of idiopathic varicocele in childhood: A preliminary report. J Urol 1989;141:913.

38. Hunter DW, King MJ, Aeppli DM, et al. Spermatic vein occlusion with hot contrast material: Angiographic results. J Vasc Interv Radiol 1991;2:507.

39. Kass EJ, Reitelman C. Adolescent varicocele. Urol Clin North Am 1995;22:151-158.

40. Pryor JL, Howards SS. Varicocele. Urol Clin North Am 1987;14:499-513.

41. Nagao RR, Plymate SR, Berger RE, Perin EB, Paulsen CA. Comparison of gonadal function between fertile and infertile men with varicoceles. Fert Steril 1986;46:930-933.

42. Younes A. Low Plasma Testosterone In Varicocele Patients With Impotence and Male Infertility. Arch Androl 2000; 45: 187-195.

43. Johnson DE, Pohl DR, Rivera-Correa H, Varicocele: An Innocuous Condition? World Health Organization, South Med J 1970; 63:34.

44. Gorelick J, Goldstien M, Loss of Fertility in Men with Varicocele. Fertil Steril 1993;59:613-616.

45. Marmar J, The Pathophysiology of Varicoceles in the Light of Current Molecular and Genetic Information. Hum Reprod Upd 2001; 7:461-472.

46. Vermeulen A, Vadeweghe M. Improved fertility after varicocele correction: fact or fiction? Fertility and Sterility 1984;42:249-256.

47. Evers JH, Collins J, Clarke J. Surgery or Embolisation for Varicoceles in Subfertile Men. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009; 1:CD000479.

48. Ficarra V, Cerruto M, Liguori G, et al. Treatment of Varicocele in Subfertile Men: The Cochrane Review- A Contrary Opinion. Euro Urol 2006; 49:258-263.

49. Marmar J, Agerwal A, Prabakaran S, et al. Reassessing the Value of Varicocelectomy as a Treatment for Male Subfertility with a New Meta-Analysis. Fert Steril 2007; 88:639-646.

50. Laven JS, Haans LC, Mali WP, teVelde ER, Wensing CJ, Eimers JM. Effects on varicocele treatment in adolescents: a randomized study. Fert Steril 1992;58:756-762.

51. Gat Y, Gornish M, Belenky A, et al. Elevation of Serum Testosterone and Free Testosterone after Embolization of the Internal Spermatic Vein for the Treatment of Varicocele in Infertile Men. Hum Reprod 2004;10:2303-2306.

52. Cayan S, Kadioglu A, Orhan I, et al. The Effect of Microsurgical Varicocelectomy on Serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Testosterone and Free Testosterone Levels in Infertile Men with Varicocele. BJU Inter 1999; 84:1046-1049.

53. Tanahatoe S, Maas WM, Hompes PG, et al. Influence of Varicocele Embolization on the Choice of Infertility Treatment. Fert Steril 2004; 6:1679-1683.

54. Cayan S, Erdemir F, Ozbey I, et al. Can Varicocelectomy Significantly Change the Way Couples Use Assisted Reproductive Technologies? J Urol 2002; 167:1749-1752.

55. Esteves SC, Glina S. Recovery of Spermatogenesis after Mcrosurgical Subinguinal Varicocele Repair in Azoospermic Men Based on Testicular Histology. Int Braz J Urol 2005; 31:541-548.

56. Daitch JA, Bedaiwy MA, Pasqualotto EB, et al. Varicocelectomy Improves Intrauterine Insemination Success Rates in Men with Varicocele. J Urol 2001; 165(5): 1510-1513.

57. Gat Y, Bachar G, Everaert K, et al.Induction of Spermatogenesis in Azoospermic Men after Internal Spermatic Vein Embolization for the Treatment of Varicocele. Hum Reprod 2005; 20(4):1013-1017.

58. Boman JM, Libman J, Zini A. Microsurgical Varicocelectomy for Isolated Asthenospermia. J Urol 2008; 180(5):2129-2132.

59. Meng MV, Greene KL, Tureck PJ. Surgery or Assisted Reproduction?A Decision Analysis of Treatment Costs in Male Infertility. J Urol 2005; 174(5):1926-1931.

60. Shlansky-Goldberg RD, VanArsdalen KN, Rutter, CM, Soulen MC, Haskal ZJ, Baum RA, Redd DC, Cope C, Pentecost MJ. Percutaneous varicocele embolization versus surgical ligation for the treatment of infertility: changes in seminal parameters and pregnancy outcomes. JVIR 1997;8:759-767.

61. Feneley MR, Pal MK, Nockler IB, Hendry WF. Retrograde embolization and causes of failure in the primary treatment of varicocele. British Journal of Urology 1997;80:642-646.

62. Sayfan J, Soffer Y, Orda R. Varicocele treatment: prospective randomized trial of 3 methods. J Urol 1992;148:1477.

63. Merimsky E, Papo J, Zaltzman S, Braf Z. High ligation or embolization of varicocele. Isr J Med Sci 1986;22:877-879.

64. Lenk S, Fahlenkamp D, Gliech V, Lindeke A. Comparison of different methods of treating varicocele. J Androl 1994;15:34S-37S.

65. Dewire DM, Thomas AJ Jr, Flak RM, et al. Clinical outcome and cost comparison of percutaneous embolization and surgical ligation of varicocele. J Androl 1994 15(suppl):38-42.

66. Nieschlag E, Behre M, Schlingheider A, Nashan D, Pohl J, Fischedick AR. Surgical ligation vs. angiographic embolization of the vena spermatica: a prospective randomized study for the treatment of varicocele-related infertility. Andrologia 1993;25:233-237.